Irony not mentioned in the text regarding "demographics" is that according data kept min federal reporting, female officers are over represented in OIS incidents. Female officers go to gun sooner than men because the majority of violent criminals are men. Men are bigger and stronger. Thus, female officers have to use their equalizer.: https://montgomeryperspective.com/2023/07/12/three-facts-about-moco-police-officers/
its amazing how you can get the same info and draw really different conclusions....this is a great blog btw if you are in MC
Years ago, a brave NC sheriff said that the #1 reason for certain minorities to be rejected from the police academy was positive drug test.
As far as reducing actual excessive force incidents, the best thing departments can do is require officers to maintain high physical standards. No more lard arses. Fat cops seem to be over represented in actual excessive force incidents.